a A town in the hill country of Judah (Josh. 15:56). b A border town of the "children of Issachar" (Josh. 19:18). c A Judahite, son of the "father" or founder of Etam (I Chron. 4:3). d Son of the prophet Hosea by his wife Gomer (Hos. 1:4). e A valley (Hos. 1:5).